Pregabaline Lyrica is an anticonvulsant, analgesic and anxiolytic medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome, opioid withdrawal and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Pregabalin also has antiallodynic properties. Its use in epilepsy is as an add-on therapy for partial seizures. It is a gabapentinoid medication. When used before surgery, it reduces pain but results in greater sedation and visual disturbances. It is taken by mouth.
Common side effects include headache, dizziness, sleepiness, confusion, trouble with memory, poor coordination, dry mouth, problem with vision, and weight gain. Serious side effects may include angioedema, drug misuse, and an increased suicide risk. When pregabalin is taken at high doses over a long period of time, addiction may occur, but if taken at usual doses the risk is low. Use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is of unclear safety. Pregabalin is a gabapentinoid and acts by inhibiting certain calcium channels.
Pregabalin is useful when added to other treatments, when those other treatments are not controlling partial epilepsy needs update] Its use alone is less effective than some other seizure medications. It is unclear how it compares to gabapentin for this use.
Pregabalin crosses the blood–brain barrier and enters the central nervous system. However, due to its low lipophilicity, pregabalin requires active transport across the blood–brain barrier. The LAT1 is highly expressed at the blood–brain barrier and transports pregabalin across into the brain. Pregabalin has been shown to cross the placenta in rats and is present in the milk of lactating rats. In humans, the volume of distribution of an orally administered dose of pregabalin is approximately 0.56 L/kg. Pregabalin is not significantly bound to plasma proteins (<1%).
Pregabalin is moderately effective and is safe for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. It is also effective for the short- and long-term treatment of social anxiety disorder and in reducing preoperative anxiety. However there is concern regarding pregabalin’s off-label use due to the lack of strong scientific evidence for its efficacy in multiple conditions and its proven side effects.
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